Phrygians were one of the tribes from the Balkans who settled into Anatolia after the destruction of Troia V11a. These Indo-European tribes started to migrate into Anatolia first in the 12th century B.C. Their first political establishment became known after 725 B.C. with king Midas. He became the first king of the Phrygian kingdom. The boundaries of the kingdom was stretching between the central and the southeastern Anatolia, before his death in 675 B.C.
They had been affected by Hellenistic and Hittite cultures soon after they arrived in Anatolia. In a very short period they were melted culturally in the rich atmosphere of Anatolia.
Gordion (Yassi Hoyuk) was the capital of the kingdom. The city is located 95 kms to the east of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, on the main highway to Eskisehir.
The golden period of the kingdom was between 725 - 675 B.C. The early 7th century B.C. Kimmer attacks had weakened the kingdom. Then, the Persian invasion of Anatolia became the second and last hit to the state. Phrygian settlements including Gordion, by loosing their importance day by day stayed under the Persian rule until 333 B.C. when Alexander the Great took the region back from the Persians. Phrygia became independent once more. But during the following centuries, in political and cultural terms, the region became more Hellenistic rather than Phrygian.
They were known to be creative and respected on metal and wood based arts and craftsmanship. The Phrygians created unique designs on woven materials and sold many of them to Ionians. They were highly intellectual on many aspects of social life. Reading and writing were not under the monopoly of kings which was the fact in many other ancient civilizations. A great majority of ordinary people were reading and writing during their daily life.