Moroccan music is of many types; it includes Arab, Berber, classical, and Popular elements. Musicians perform in concerts, in cafes, at private homes, at circumcision ceremonies, marriages, funerals, and religious processions and in accompaniment to dancing and storytelling.
Classical music in the moroccan sense is the Andalusian music of the tenth to fifteenth centuries. lt is extremely complicated in musical structure, and its lyrics are characterized by the
strict use of the Andalusian dialect or classical Arabic and by the construction of verse in the style of classical poetry. It is played by an orchestra composed of the "TAR ", a form of tambourine; sometimes the "Darbuqa ", a funnel-shaped drum made of clay; and three types of stringed instruments - the rebab, played by the leader and considered the most important; the "Kemanjah", now supplanted in most instances by the European violin; the "Oudh", a lute.
Andalusian music is given regular performances by several orchestras, among them the National Broadcast Orchestra and the concert orchestras of Fes, Marrakech, and Casablanca. Since independence the Association of Andalusian Music in Casablanca has attempted to preserve examples of this music, collecting and writing down the melodies and words, which have been transmitted largely by ear.
Moroccan Arab popular music, "Griha ", is musically similar to, but simpler than, the classical music and uses the popular, rather than the classical language. New songs are composed in this genre; they usually concern love, war, and adventure and often include topical satire. This type of music has also been adapted by some of the brotherhoods for religious chants.
Berber music, even more closely linked to poetry than Arab music, is usually associated Wit/l the dance and varies considerably according to region. Percussion instruments, drums and
tambourines provide the rhythm, while the melody is played on a f lute or a single-stringed "rehab ".