It is understood that the city was occupied since the Neolithic Age. There are some artefacts documenting this very early settlement place, found in the nearby tumulus of Igdeli Cesme. It is also known that Nevsehir was an important town occupied by Hittites because its close position to Kizilirmak (Halys river). During the following ages, it has been conquered by the Ionians, Cimmerians, Assyrians, Meds, Persians, Romans, Seljuks and finally the Ottomans.
There is a Byzantine era citadel on the summit of the hill which is surrounded by the city today. The second important monument of the inner city region is the "Mosque with the Leads" built by Damat Ibrahim Pasa, the influencial Ottoman vizier who was born in Nevsehir.
The Rock Mosque (Kaya Camii) is also an important historical site worth seeing.